ePalaeontology - Paleontological Research Online

Ancient secrets

Ancient beauty secrets that works

Nature provides us a wide variety of items which have been combined for many years in a series of remedies that preserve the attractiveness of hands and feet. Many of these elements have been included on the formulation of effective products like those available at zetaclearcenter.com. Combining all the mentioned resources you will obtain healthier and stronger nails without having to resort to expensive beauty treatments.

Information revealed by ancient records

Until recently, the scientific community did not have a clear idea regarding the exact stage on which primates developed nails. However, that question has been answered a few months ago by researchers of the University of Florida. According to their investigations, those hardened cells of the fingers appeared in our ancestors about 50 million years ago, facilitating a more sensitive tactile interaction.

The analysis conducted by Florida paleontologists on earliest fossil evidence, also indicates that such hardened cells were built with the assistance of specific nutrients. This is why it is so important the intake of foods with high content of vitamins A and B, especially in cases where nails are too fragile. Therefore, the preference for foods like tomatoes, cereals, red peppers, nuts, carrots and almonds is a clever strategy inherited from our ancestors.

These days, these nutrients constitute the active principles of many creams that have been specially formulated to protect the ungueal tissue. If you have been noticing slight changes in the appearance of your nails like the emergence of whitish or yellowish spots, you probably need a more specialized product. At zetaclearcenter.com you can find topical treatments like ZetaClear that have been made with organic ingredients which prevent the spread of parasitic agents.

Olive oil is one of these remarkable constituents. Since ancient times it has been combined with many organic resources to create powerful natural treatments that preserve the beauty of nails. For instance, to strengthen them and enhance their resistance, you can mix the mentioned element with a few drops of lemon juice. This mixture will also help to hydrate the tissues from the deepest layers.

Besides, a combination of lemon and olive oil can restore the natural color of ungueal plate due to its high content of vitamin C. You just have to apply the mixture on your nails through gentle massages. You can resort to this treatment at least twice a week and preferably at night.

Natural solutions to preserve the beauty of your nails

Another effective way to strengthen fragile nails by means of the use of home remedies is to resort to natural oils. These resources have a high content of nutrients and vitamins that help to repair them and maintain them always healthy and hydrated.

Castor oil concentrates an important amount of vitamin E which makes it an ideal ally when it comes to hardening brittle nails. It is also very useful to hydrate cuticles.

Almond oil strengthens and moisturizes the tissue of ungueal plate. In addition, it increases the smoothness of the skin. Both resources can be found on adequate doses in the composition of natural solutions available at zetaclearcenter.com. Regardless of the nature of the problem, you can always rely on these treatments to have beautiful and perfect nails.

mammoth

Man actions and twilight of the mammoths

Although the climate change added pressure, the truth is that the humankind has triggered the extinction of the mammoths. In fact, numerous other ice age beasts have disappeared in the Holocene extinction, which is mainly due to human activity. We hunt them, destroy their natural habitats, and pollute the ecosystems. Many species have become extinct, and the list of endangered animals gets longer every year. Read more information about man actions and twilight of the mammoths.

What really happened in the twilight of the mammoths

The mammoth – scientifically known as Mammuthus – lived from the Pliocene epoch (almost 5 million years ago) into the Holocene (approximately 4,500 years ago). The majestic creatures had long, curved tusks, characteristic to the family Elephantidae. Yes, the same as the modern elephants. Where could you have found the mammoths? In Europe, Africa, North America, and Asia. The evidence shows that mammoths disappeared about 3 or 4 million years ago. Their descendants moved north and covered vast areas in Eurasia.

Why did they disappear? For a long time, we thought that the last species had vanished from southern Siberia and Europe approximately 12,000 years ago. But new findings show that they were still living 10 thousand years ago. Large masses have disappeared around the last glacial retreat, in the mass extinction of megafauna. However, small populations have survived in Alaska (until the year 3750 BC) and on Wrangel Island (until approximately 1650 BC).

The glacial retreat due to the warming trend brought rising sea levels. The forests have replaced the open grasslands and woodlands all over the continent. However, the climate alone wouldn’t have triggered the extinction of mammoths. The spread of the advanced human hunters in America and Eurasia played a crucial role. Neanderthals butchered them, while Homo sapiens built dwellings using mammoth bones.

How man actions destroy our planet

Archeologists have explained to us that such episodes of climate change were nothing new. Million years before the ice age, similar warming events took place, but without causing megafaunal extinctions. In our days, we can definitely observe the current warming trend. The carbon dioxide level is higher than ever, while the small variations in our planet’s orbit have changed the quantity of solar energy we receive.

The tropical mountain glaciers and ice cores drowned in Antarctica and Greenland prove that the planet’s climate reacts to the modifications occurred in greenhouse gas levels. What is worse is that the current warming happens almost 10 times faster than the warming that took place during the ice age.

We cannot stop wondering what will be the next twilight. How many other species will become extinct because of man actions? We need to make a change and adopt policies that will slow the climate warming. We ought to reduce pollution, recycle more, stop the hunting and, generally speaking, stopping destroying our beautiful planet.

Man actions and twilight of the mammoths are only one dark episode that proves the effects of evolution, our greed, and negligence. Learn why nature matters and how to get involved to save Earth and its beautiful ecosystems!

megafauna

Would mankind be able to thrive in a megafauna world?

The lost giants fascinate people of all ages. Megafauna is the set of large living creatures that survived and thrived on Earth thousand years ago, during the Pleistocene epoch. The animals having more than 97 lbs (44kg) during adulthood belonged to Megafauna. The extinction of many of these mammals occurred during the Quaternary, and many scientists link their disappearance to the hunting skills of humans. Would mankind be able to thrive in a megafauna world?

Discover the megafauna world

The Quaternary megafauna of Eurasia could be divided into 4 different categories: Dinosaurs of Europe, Dinosaurs of Asia, Megafauna of North Asia, and Neogene Megafauna of Eurasia. During the megafauna world from the last glacial period, the world wasn’t as we know it. Large ice sheets started to advance, triggering a sudden rise in the sea level. The animals could have passed on land bridges, as the Earth’s water was captured in glaciation, hence the sea levels were lower than today.

The continent of Europe was drier and colder, with polar desert up north and tundra or steppe in the rest of it. It sounds crazy, but there weren’t woodlands or forests. You could have seen isolated forests in the south of Europe, in the mountains. This was the world of giant bears, interglacial rhinoceros, mammoths, Eurasian wolfs, saber-tooth tigers, and other large beasts. The disappearance of the large animals known as megafauna has occurred in the Holocene extinction and coincides with the arrival of humans on different continents.

Would the mankind survive along megafaunal creatures?

It happened during the climate change when the natural habitat of megafauna has modified considerably. The timing closely correlates with the arrival of Homo sapiens on the places where large animals were already extinct. A few relic populations of megafaunal animals have survived, surprisingly. The Giant Moa, a dwarf subspecies of Woolly Mammoth, and Stellar’s Sea Cow have disappeared years after the first contact with the mankind. Plus, species of Rhinoceros, Giraffe, Elephants, and Hippopotamus have co-evolved with Homo sapiens.

The massive beasts that lived thousand years ago were already on the edge when mankind started over-hunting them. It shows that we were more than capable of surviving in their world. A world that we would have affected as much as we do now. The rapid evolution and superiority allowed mankind to amass plenty cooperative skills and technological knowledge to hunt, gather, and basically change the ecosystems.

Scientists wonder what was the mankind thinking when they committed all the megafaunal extinctions. Yes, it was easy to kill the giant creatures. But was it really necessary? Recent evidence shows that the killing of species went on for many generations. They were good to get, and humans were only thinking for short term.

We know now that the mankind was able to thrive in a megafauna world. But the results would have been the same. Many species would have collapsed, as they did not have hereditary human protection. The mankind needed their meat and acted as invasive species in a world that used to be ruled by large creatures. Even today, we notice that we are powerful and reckless enough to overwhelm any natural balance. Take a look on the widespread degradation of coral reefs and rainforest.
Isn’t it the time to change?

sarcosuchus imperator

The biggest under water fossils ever found

Although it comes several thousand years after they have become extinct, our fascination for megafaunal animals keeps us in front of the TV when they show the most recently discovered fossils. From amazing dinosaurs and prehistoric sea monsters to giant lemurs and 12 meters reptiles, here are the biggest under water fossils ever found.

The largest under water creatures

No complete specimens have been found, but we can estimate the size of the prehistoric animals based on the fossils discovered. In some cases, just one bone was enough to approximate the species and its dimensions. Did you know that the largest rodent of all time was about 3 meters long and 1.5 meters height? However, the biggest creatures lived under water. The largest known fossil belongs to the toothed whale – Odontocete – the whale Livyatan melvillei, a Miocene physeteroid that measured about 13.5-17.5 meters in length.

From February to March 2016, the scientists have discovered more than a ton of 71 million-year-old fossils in Antarctica. They analyzed the prehistoric birds and marine reptiles to provide a detailed snapshot of life in Antarctica at the end of dinosaurs’ era. During the Jurassic Period, the Plesiosaurs lived in the water but breathed air. In the years 2002, 3004, 2006, and 2008 numerous such fossils were discovered in the UK, Norway, and Antarctica. The prehistoric creature could have reached 15 meters in length when adult.

The largest known crocodylomorph (Sarcosuchus imperator) was weighing 8 tons and measured 12 meters long. Do you think that lizards are cute these days? During Late Cretaceous, the marine lizard called Tylosaurus – a mosasaur – was a dominant predator living in the Western Interior Seaway and could have reached to 14 meters length. Can you believe the beast is closely related to the snakes and lizards that populate the Earth now?

Biggest fossil graveyards ever found

Despite the fact it’s a desolate place on our planet, the Gobi Desert of Central Asia is a heaven for paleontologists. 80 million-year-old fossils have been discovered here. They belonged to over 200 skulls of mammals and 25 theropod dinosaurs.

An impressive hillside dinosaur graveyard hid numerous skeletons in New Mexico. In Alberta, Canada, a cemetery of many dinosaur bones stretches for hundreds of miles. Alluvial deposits have blocked about 9,000 animals in a graveyard from Agate Springs, Nebraska. Hundreds of rhinos, giant wild boars, camel, three-toed horses, fish, and seashells are mixed in sites from Belgium, Mongolia, and Tanzania. The Ashley Beds from the southern United States you will find remains of man with both sea and land animals: sharks, whales, rhinos, plesiosaurs, mammoths, mastodons, deer, and porpoises, among many others.

Not even turtles and tortoises were small. The largest fossils ever found measured 4 meters. If Steller’s sea cow reached to 9 meters long, the largest dinoceratan – Uintatherium – had 2 tons and approximately 4 meters long. The funny thing is that its brain was only as large as an orange.

The biggest under water fossils ever found can be admired in museums and exhibits throughout the world.
Why do the prehistoric creatures fascinate you?